Fact Sheets


Charter of Rights and Freedoms and The Canadian Passport Order (PDF)


Child Trafficking – General (PDF)

  • Definition of child trafficking
  • Risk factors and statistics associated with child trafficking
  • Challenges in helping victims of child trafficking
  • Canadian Annual Report on Progress of the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking

Child Trafficking – Law (PDF)

  • UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (articles 34, 35)
  • Bill C-310 (makes human trafficking an extra-territorial offence, s. 7(4.11) of the Criminal Code)
  • Ss. 279.01-279.04 of the Criminal Code contain human trafficking prohibitions
  • Immigrant and Refugee Protection Act (s. 118)
  • Bill C-268 (created a minimum sentence for offences involving trafficking of persons under the age of eighteen years)
  • Bill C-310 (makes human trafficking a punishable offence even if it occurred outside of

Child Trafficking – Action (PDF)

  • Canada’s National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking
  • Canadian organizations engaged in combating human trafficking

Child Sex Tourism — General (PDF)

  • Factors leading to child sex tourism
  • Where child sex tourism occurs
  • The role of the tourism industry in preventing child sex tourism

Child Sex Tourism — Action (PDF)

  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism
  • Individual action through cybertip.ca

Child Sex Tourism – Law (PDF)

  • UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Bill C-27 (criminalizes child sex tourism in s. 7(4.1) of the Criminal Code)
  • Bill C-26 (proposes tougher penalties for child predators and would require sex offenders to provide more information when traveling)

Self and Peer Exploitation – General (PDF)

  • Definition of self/peer exploitation
  • Why youth engage in sexting
  • The consequences of sexting
  • What is being done about self/peer exploitation
  • Bill C-13 (proposed legislation that would create new offences of distributing images without the consent of persons depicted and allow spouses to act at witnesses for the prosecution of the new offence)
  • R v Spencer

Sexual Abuse and Trafficking of Aboriginal Children (PDF)

  • Child sexual abuse amongst Aboriginal children in Canada
  • Trafficking and Aboriginal Children
  • National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking

Child Marriage — General (PDF)

  • Risk factors associated with child marriage
  • International and domestic law on child marriage

Polygamy and Child Marriage in Canada (PDF)

  • Risk factors associated with polygamy
  • International law and perspectives
  • S. 293 of the Criminal Code limits marriage to a union of 2 people
  • 2011 Polygamy Reference (British Columbia



Child Abuse Images — Statistics (PDF)

Summary information from a cybertip.ca report on child sexual abuse images on the Internet from 2002–2009


Child Abuse Images — Law (PDF)

  • Definition of “child pornography”
  • Explanation of Bills C-2 and C-22 (penalties for child pornography offences and mandatory reporting of child pornography by ISPs)

Female Genital Mutilation (PDF)

  • Definition of female genital mutilation
  • International law: Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Domestic law: s. 268(3) of the Criminal Code includes FGM as aggravated assault

Sexual Exploitation and Technology (PDF)

  • Risks in communicating via technology
  • Canadian Coalition Against Internet Child Exploitation
  • Bill C-22: Mandatory Reporting Obligations (duty for Internet Service Providers to report any incident of child pornography to law enforcement)

International and Domestic Law (PDF)

Legal References used in these fact sheets